Critical Analysis of “The Grapes of Wrath,” by John Steinbeck

Cover of The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck“The Grapes of Wrath,” by John Steinbeck is a classic novel noted for its descriptive quality, and fascinating writing techniques. However, its seemingly historical theme is mainly designed to promote socialistic theories.

“The Grapes of Wrath” was greatly influenced by the background and associates of its writer, John Steinbeck. When Steinbeck left Stanford College in 1925 to become a writer, he came into association with Leftist and Socialistic advocates. For example, one of his friends during the process of producing “The Grapes of Wrath” was Francis Whitaker, a member of the Communist Party’s John Reed club for writers. He also spent time with the radical writer Lincoln Steffens and his wife Ella Winter. It was through Steffens that Steinbeck was introduced to George West, a San Francisco News editor who commissioned Steinbeck to write a series of newspaper articles about the living conditions of California migrant workers. This writing experience inspired Steinbeck to write a full length novel, “The Grapes of Wrath.”

“The Grapes of Wrath” starts with a depiction of the Dust Bowl, the event which causes all that happens in the rest of the book. In then introduces Tom Joad, the main character. In the story, Tom has recently been paroled from prison, where he had been serving a term for murder. Now he returns to his family’s home. On the return trip he is joined by retired preacher Jim Casy. When the two get to the Joad family home, however, they find that the house is abandoned and in a state of collapse. They eventually find the family at Tom’s uncle’s home, where the Joad family is preparing to leave for California. It turns out that the drought caused the family’s crops to fail. When the bank foreclosed on the Joad family’s farm they were forced to move in with Tom’s uncle. Tom, Jim Casy, and the rest of the Joad family migrate to California, where they hope to find employment and advance their lives. On arriving in “the Promised Land”, though, they find their dreams to be disappointingly unattainable. The advertisements about ample work for all are really just ploys by the land owners to get cheap labor by attracting more workers than there are jobs. Gradually the family’s condition goes downhill as different members of the traveling group leave. Despite the fact that Tom’s younger sister Rosasharn is now pregnant, her husband abandons her. Even Jim Casy is arrested by the police and so separated from the family. The remaining members of the Joad family stay for a while at a government camp, but there is no work available in the area, so they are forced to leave the camp and move to another area. When they finally find work picking fruit, however, they discover that they are actually involved in breaking a strike that was organized by Jim Casy. When the strike turns violent, Jim Casy is killed and Tom again kills to avenge Jim Casy’s death. The family is forced to escape, hiding their fugitive son from the authorities. The lowest point is reached when Rosasharn’s baby is stillborn. Finally, the story ends with Rosasharn breastfeeding a starving man so emaciated that milk is all he can digest.

“The Grapes of Wrath” uses a variety of interesting techniques to share its message and create emotion within the story. The main storyline is continually interspersed with short sketches and narratives, or explanatory discussions that show what conditions of the era were like and what people were doing. Some of these interludes are used to create a general mood or to foreshadow events later in the story. One example of such a narrative sketch can be noted in chapter three, which is almost entirely devoted to the story of a land turtle crossing the highway. The turtle struggles up the embankments and barely avoids death when a truck hits its and sends it flying off the highway. Still alive, though, is struggles on. In the next chapter, Tom Joad sees the same turtle and picks it up, hoping to take it home to his little brother as a pet. When he meets Jim Casy and the two start talking, the turtle almost escapes several times, but Tom catches it each time. When Tom reaches his family’s home, though, and finds it abandoned he gives up and, in a gesture of despair, lets the turtle go. For a final trial for the poor turtle, it is attacked by one the abandoned cats. The turtle just goes inside its shell, though, and waits for the danger to pass before setting off on its way. The case of the turtle threads through chapters three through six, tying them together and making the reader sympathize with the plight of the persistent creature. The creature’s struggles, though, foreshadow those of the Joad family, to whom the readers sympathies will soon shift. Like the persistent turtle, the Joad family will not give up. In addition, neither the story of the turtle, nor the story of the Joad family may end happily, but both the turtle and the Joad family will survive despite attacks and difficulties. Another interesting technique that Steinbeck uses in “The Grapes of Wrath” is best seen in chapter seven, which depicts a used car salesman selling his old jalopies to the desperate migrants. In doing this he intersperses short, descriptive phrases without predicates into an ongoing monologue which is the car dealers private thoughts. Like a pencil sketch in which a few carefully drawn lines create a picture, the short, meaningful phrases that Steinbeck uses capture the urgency of the car dealer to sell his broken down jalopies and the migrants to buy a car that will take them to California. For example Steinbeck quickly introduces the used car lot with only a few short sentences:

“A lot and a house large enough for a desk and chair and a blue book. Sheaf of contracts, dog-eared, held with paper clips, and a neat pile of unused contracts. Pen-keep it full, keep it working… Owners with rolled up sleeves. Salesmen, neat, deadly, small intent eyes watching for weaknesses.”

These descriptive phrases reflect the quick, clipped talking of the car dealer himself:

“Lookin’ for a car? What did you have in mind? See anything attracts you? I‘m dry. How about a little snort of good stuff? Come on, while your wife’s looking’ at that La Salle. You don‘t want no La Salle. Bearings shot. Uses to much oil. Got a Lincoln ‘24. There‘s a car. Run forever. Make her into a truck.”

Both the quick descriptive phrases and the dealers endless monologue are short and to the point. However, while the descriptive phrases consist mainly of subjects without any predicates, the dealers pitch is made up of predicate phrases without any subjects, or with understood subjects that can be determined from the context. This difference is slight, but it causes these two narrative elements to subliminally strengthen each other so that the overall sketch is balanced and complete. Another effect that Steinbeck uses in this passage and others is the repetition of a key phrase. For example at the beginning of the narrative sketch Steinbeck describes the signs used to advertise used cars:

“In the towns, on the edges of the towns, in fields, in vacant lots, the used-car yards, the wreckers’ yards, the garages with blazoned signs-Used Cars, Good Used Cars, Cheap transportation, three trailers, ’27 Ford, clean. Checked cars, guaranteed cars. Free radio. Car with 100 gallons of gas free. Come in and look. Used cars.”

In this passage of the book the phrase, “Used Cars. Good Used Cars” is a key phrase that is repeated over and over. This continued repetition is important because it has two effects on the passage as a whole. First, it ties the entire passage together with a common theme. Also, though, the constant harping on “Good Used Cars” approaches the level of sarcastic irony which exposes the used car dealer’s devious ploy to take advantage of the desperate migrants. This is especially evident in the end of the passage:

“Goin’ to California? Here’s jus’ what you need. Looks shot, but they’s thousan’s of miles in her.
Lined up side by side. Good Used Cars. Bargains. Clean runs good.”

Steinbeck’s literary device of repeating a single phrase over and over again can be observed in yet another place in “The Grapes of Wrath.” In chapter twelve Steinbeck begins with a description of Route 66, the “main migrant road.” Then he switches to an ongoing conversational flow from the point of view of a group of desperate migrants. The migrants argue over what they will find in California, and constantly worry about the state of their car and whether it will be able to take them to California before it gives out. Meanwhile, their young boy in the back seat complains about how thirsty he is. Four times in two pages Steinbeck abruptly and deliberately interrupts his description of the trip and the adult’s conversations with the phrase, “Danny wants a cup of water.” Steinbeck repeats this phrase in order to create the effect of a child’s backseat complaints. Without using the child’s own voice he makes it seem as if the child is complaining directly to the reader, who is as unable to help him as the fictional book parents are. Steinbeck uses these and other literary tools to skillfully present his message, which is just as interesting as its delivery.

In “The Grapes of Wrath,” Steinbeck uses the experience of migrant workers to share an important message with his readers. In presenting such an event, he shows that life is a mixture of both cruel and beautiful things. This is a unifying theme of “The Grapes of Wrath” and it is especially evident at the end of chapter twelve:

“The people in flight from terror behind-strange things happen to them, some bitterly cruel and some so beautiful that the faith is refired forever.”

Throughout the book, Steinbeck tries to show that good can still exist among evil. The deepest and most moving example of this is the final scene of the book, where Rosasharn breastfeeds a dying man, still willing to help another despite her own losses. In general, Steinbeck’s characters can be divided along two lines: those who just do everything they can to help themselves, and those who cooperate so as to help both themselves and others. In Steinbeck’s writings, for example, the greedy bank owners and crop growers who take advantage of the migrants are shown in a bad connotation. Steinbeck’s message though, is that people should cooperate to offset such evil. In displaying this message, Steinbeck uses chapter nineteen to share his Socialistic views with the reader:

“And the great owners, who must lose their land in an upheaval, the great owners with access to history, with eyes to read history and to know the great fact: when property accumulates in too few hands it is taken away. And that companion fact: when a majority of the people are hungry and cold they will take by force what they need. And the little screaming fact that sounds through all history: repression works only to strengthen and knit the repressed.”

Steinbeck openly advocates Marxist proletarian revolt in response to unjust economic conditions, which, he goes on to explain, are directly caused by capitalism:

“The tractors which throw men out of work, the belt lines which carry loads, the machines which produce, all were increased; and more and more families scampered on the highways, looking for crumbs from the great holdings, lusting after the land beside the roads. ”

As you can see, one of Steinbeck’s major messages is that socialistic revolt is the way to solve economic problems. He says that people must join together and as he says, “This is the beginning-from ‘I’ to ‘We.’” In this aspect, Steinbeck is only partially correct. To solve problems, it is true that people must work together and share, but Steinbeck’s fundamental theory is incorrect because it is based on Marxism, which is fundamentally incorrect. Because of human nature a Socialist system only works well during weak economic periods when a few people have an abundance, but the majority has nothing. Only then are people willing to share, because people as a whole are fundamentally greedy. Therefore, Steinbeck’s Socialistic message, stated as a truism, must understandably be considered with a grain of salt. Not only is Steinbeck’s message of proletariat revolt as the solution to economic problems unreasonable, but it is also ironic in light of the novel’s title. The title “The Grapes of Wrath” is based on “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” by Julia Ward Howe. “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” refers to God bringing about justice on the Earth, as depicted at Revelation 14:19-20.

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord:
He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;
He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword:
His truth is marching on.

Ironically, Steinbeck’s novel does not point toward God bringing about justice. Instead, Steinbeck promotes the idea that a proletarian revolt will be the time when “the grapes of wrath” are trod and justice is brought about. In other words, in Steinbeck’s eyes the coming of the Lord is a proletariat revolt.

To summarize my analysis of The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck has, in writing this classic novel, created a moving and quite well written piece of art. The story is very descriptive, and Steinbeck’s fascinating writing techniques give the book a distinct feel. However, a reader of “The Grapes of Wrath” must remember that Steinbeck had his own motives in writing this book, namely to share his socialist viewpoint.

Your Rating:
Inkweaver Review 2008-09-18T09:00:00-05:00

132 replies so far. What are your thoughts?

Book Calendar said...

This book is critical to understand right now. It will give you deep insight into what is about to happen in the United States.

The dust bowl which drove the farmers from the land, in a way is not that different from the hurricanes that are moving through Louisiana and Texas.

We have not yet felt the displacement of so many people from those areas. The shock is being glazed over with other news.

It is very similar in prelude to the great depression.

This book describes the hard times which happen to people when they lose everything.

A lot of people in Texas and Louisiana are having that kind of experience again.

NathanKP said...

Thank you for you very insightful comment, Book Calendar.

As a Texas resident myself my town narrowly missed the hurricane, but we escaped without damage. We are swamped with evacuees, all in need of assistance.

Fortunately, us Texans have a sort of laid back way of approaching problems. Most of the evacuees that I have met so far are pretty accepting and calm about what has happened to them.

But the victims of Hurricane Ike are still in need of our help.


Anonymous said...

It seems that critic, NathanKP, is more intent on linking Steinbeck with Marxism and Socialism than he is with providing us with a critical analysis of Steinbeck's literary product. He imputes Socialist motivations via guilt by asssociation. I cannot find evidence for his accusations in Steinbeck's writing.

NathanKP said...

I assume that you have actually read the book, Anonymous, but I am surprised that you did not see the clear references that I mention in this analysis.

A "serf" uprising against the rich land owners, something with Steinbeck clearly advocates, is by definition Marxism and Socialism.

In addition I do not feel that my piece is an accusation. Steinbeck is entitled to his own views about Socialism.

Jenny Jumean said...

I think honestly, that John didn't live during the times when people were actually moving, so his visualizations are, as mentioned, unrealistic, but U'm fascinated by how much imagination and realistic events he out together in order to prove his point of view.

My question is, do you think that John St used the dust bowl events just to make the reader sympathize for the characters enough to actually get to agree with his socialistic views? If so, did he do a great job or was it just an instrument? And if so, being a man who was almost in the bourgeois class, was he able to portray the feelings and events exactly like it happened, or is it a vulgar description of events?

-Jenny Jumean
15 years old
Amman, Jordan

Wayne said...

Thanks God he shared his "socialist viewpoint". What a lame review of a great work of art with a great message. We are so politically lost in this country that empathy for the struggles of working people against powerful monied interests is always viewed with suspicion. I just finished this old classic and I wish more Americans would read it and wake up. I would like to see a real people's movement in this country.

Anonymous said...

agree with Wayne and what he says about this paranoic american view of social and economy critics.

Ok, Steinbeck is talking from a socialist point of view, so what? is he telling things that were not true? like millions of people forced to leave their lands because of the greed of the market? is not true that the fear of the already settle people for the "okies" and their subsecuent persecution is caused by this "mind my own business" way of thinking, an individualism that dehumanize every single act in life?

there's a lot of paranoia in this kind of reviews, a "MacCarthism" full-of-fear view about anything that sounds like a minimum disagree of market economy, and sadly this kind of thinking don't help at all to a deep analysis of social contradictions.

The author says "marxism is fundamentally wrong" and the explanation about this is totally lame: "just works in harder times? Human is esencially greedy?" i'm anthropologist and i know that this kind of behavior is a consecuence of certain kinds of economic systems, is not natural for all human societies to struggle between individuals for bread or water. Also, if you read "The Capital" you'll see that what Marx is telling is how this capitalist system is based in such big contradictions, and how this contradictions leads always to crisis like the one we suffer 3 years ago. Is probably the best analisys of capitalism, and the capitalist people don't read it because the author has been "demonized".

Finally, the grapes of wrath is one of the best books i've ever read, mainly because Steinbeck is just telling a obscure, full of pain story, based in real facts and in all the real contradictions capitalism can carry. Just open your mind and try not to bring prejudices about political views into this.

Anonymous said...

Thank you for this forum. I just completed the book for a second time. First time I was in my 20's and to be honest, it was hard to look much farther past the offensive language. This in spite of the truth it told. Now at 45, the language didn't strike me as much as the complete hopelessness of a tapestry woven without the mercy of God present. I do see a worldview presented here that is so foreign to mine that it is extremely difficult to relate. Even 72 years past it's publication, I'm even more amazed at its popularity. Given it's contrast, perhaps I've answered my own question.
I understand this is required reading for high school and college. This book presents so many questions at so many levels that I wonder. I wonder how my children's worldview will be affected. Given all that, I must say the the style, research and imagery are amazing. After reading several from the Russians masters such as Tolstoy, it ranks with the best. One last thing, I must disagree with the author's assessment of rich and poor. It's not the 'poor' that we can rely on, in my experience, it seems as if each social class supports it's own, however, it seems to be at both ends of the economic scale. The poor are quick to help one another, the wealthy certainly help one another. All of us in the middle aren't so good at it. Maybe a good follow up read would be the 'Road to serfdom' by Hayek.

Anonymous said...

We can discuss his Marxist agenda, or we can get at the real truth of the matter. This book is one of the best, ever written. Steinbeck uses some of the most creative techniques to show the reader, he doesn't just tell it. But its a period piece. Of course many readers won't understand the plight of the Joad family, because they can't see past the smartphone. Today you would have to understand the plight of the Illegal migrant worker. The people who pick the fruit. The people who still live in Steinbeck's world, today. Those who cannot escape to the modern world, the world of the ipod, those people have no idea what a 'Marx' or a 'Socialist' is, they only know that if they can just get here, it will be ok. Only a fool could come away from this story thinking it was just so-so. Only a white suburbanite with their car and running water and big screen television could come away with nothing. My grandmother is 78 years old. She was one of the children of the great depression. She was one of the survivors. How many of you know your elders? Did you come from money? Did they? Do you know where your next meal is coming from? We glance sidelong at person, who has more. But I have always had a meal, when I was hungry. It takes this kind of book to tell that there are still people in trouble. That world still exists. And the children of that world go hungry, they just aren't white.

Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

The minute I saw my student (with the political consciousness of Snooki) say in her essay that the book was socialistic I knew she had plagiarized. Lo and behold, it was from your site.

By the way, John Steinbeck was not a socialist. He was on the side of the working class. There is a difference. He just wanted fair play.

Anonymous said...

Thank you for this article. I was having trouble analyzing this book and this cleared it up for me.

Mrs. Walker said...

As I read the book, it occurred to me that the migrants' experiences were very similar to those in Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. The primary difference was agricultural/ rural experience verses industrial/city. I, too, thought of socialism --perhaps because of the clear, strong reference to socialism in Sinclair's novel. Like Sinclair's novel, Steinbeck's contains some very powerful passages, such as the description of the change brought on by the mechanization of farming: "The man who is more than his chemistry, walking on the earth to eat his lunch; that man is more than his elements knows the land that is more than its analysis. But the machine man, driving a dead tractor on land he does not know or love, understands only chemistry; and he is contemptuous of the land and of himself When the corrugated iron doors are shut, he goes home, and his home is not the land." This is so indicative of the assembly-line approach to production and to living in a capitalistic, industrialized society. The disconnect is blatant and seems to go hand in hand with loss of compassion, the loss of the "we" that Steinbeck refers to --and its resulting cruelty to the poor. The experience of the characters provides a glimpse into what could soon be...our society, once again, seems poised to suffer the same type of economic and social malfunction as depicted in The Grapes of Wrath.

Bethwel Kirui said...

The analysis is clearly presented and detailed, but would like to know exactly the theme of the book. Thanks.

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